Microlite Ionizer

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Jupiter MicroLite JP107 Water Ionizer Installation Part 1

Orion Water Ionizer

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Earth (planet), one of the nine planets of the solar system, the only known planet to harbor life, and the "home" for humans. From space the Earth is like a big blue marble with white clouds floating above blue oceans. About 71 percent of the land surface is covered by water, which is essential for life. The rest is land, mostly in the shape of the continents that rise above the oceans.

An oxygen-rich soil temperature and protective atmosphere, moderate, abundant water, and a varied chemical composition enable Earth to sustain life, the only planet known to harbor life. The planet is composed of rock and metal, which are present in molten form beneath its surface. The spacecraft Apollo 17 took this picture (most of the white area at the bottom) in 1972, the Arabian Peninsula, Africa, and Antarctica.

Earth's surface is surrounded by a layer of greenhouse known as the atmosphere, which extends upward from the surface, slowly thinning into space. Below is a hot interior surface of rocky material and two layers of base metals consisting of nickel and iron in solid and liquid.

Unlike of the other planets, Earth has a unique set of features ideal for supporting life as we know it. It is neither too hot, like Mercury, closest planet to the sun, nor too cold, distant, like Mars and the even more distant outer planets-Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto small. Earth's atmosphere includes the exact amount of gases that trap the sun's heat, resulting in a mild climate suitable for the existence of liquid water. The atmosphere also help block the sun's radiation would be harmful to life. Earth's atmosphere distinguishes it from the planet Venus, which is otherwise very similar to Earth. Venus is about the same size and mass of the Earth and is also too close or too far from the sun. But because Venus has too much carbon dioxide that trap heat in its atmosphere, its surface is hot-462 ° C (864 ° F), hot enough to melt lead and too hot for life to exist.

Although Earth is the only known planet that has life, scientists do not rule out the possibility that life once may have existed on other planets or moons, or may exist today in primitive form. Mars, for example, has many features that resemble river channels, suggesting that liquid water flowed once on its surface. If so, life may also have evolved there, and the evidence that will one day be found as fossils. The water still exists on Mars, but is frozen in polar ice caps in the permafrost, and possibly in the rocks beneath the surface.

For thousands of years, Human beings can only wonder on Earth and other planets in the solar system observable. Many initial ideas, for example, that the Earth was a sphere and traveled around Sun-are based on a reasonably bright. However, it was only with the development of scientific instruments and scientific method, especially in the ages 18 and 19 that humans began to collect data that can be used to test theories about the Earth and the rest of the solar system. By studying fossils found in layers of rock, for example, scientists realized that Earth was much older than previously believed. And with the use of telescopes, new planets like Uranus Neptune and Pluto were discovered.

Earth and the Moon in the 1960, people saw for the first time what was the Earth from space. This famous picture of Earth was taken by the astronauts of Apollo 8 as it orbited the Moon in 1968.

In the second half of the 20th century, more advances in the study of the Earth and the system solar occurred due to the development of rockets that could send spacecraft beyond Earth. Human beings were able to study and observe the Earth from space with satellites equipped with scientific instruments. The astronauts landed on the moon and met ancient rocks that revealed much about the early solar system. During this remarkable progress human history, human beings also sent unmanned spacecraft to other planets and their moons. Spacecraft have visited every planet except Pluto. The study of other planets and moons has provided a new perspective on Earth, and the study of the Sun and other stars as it has helped shape new theories about of how Earth and other solar system was formed.

As a result of recent space exploration, we now know that Earth is one of the geologically most active of all the planets and moons in the solar system. The Earth is constantly changing. During long periods of time the land is built up and worn, oceans are formed and re-form, and the continents move around, break, and merge.

Life itself contributes to changes in the Earth, especially the way in living things can alter the Earth's atmosphere. For example, Earth at the same time had the same amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus is now, but early life helped eliminate carbon dioxide over millions of years. These forms of life also adds oxygen to the atmosphere of the earth, and possible that the animal life to evolve on earth.

A variety of scientific fields have expanded our knowledge of Earth, including biogeography, climatology, geology, geophysics, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, and zoogeography. Together, these fields are known as Earth science. By studying Earth's atmosphere, surface, and inside and study the Sun and the rest of the solar system, scientists have learned much about how the Earth came into being, how it has changed, and why is changing.

EARTH II, THE SOLAR SYSTEM, and the galaxy

The Earth is the third planet from the Sun, after Mercury and Venus. The average distance between Earth and the Sun is 150 million km (93 million km). Earth and all the other planets in the solar system revolve or orbit around the Sun due to the force of gravity. The Earth travels at a speed of about 107,000 km / h (about 67.000 miles per hour) in its orbit around the sun. All but one of the planets orbit the Sun in the same plane, ie, if an imaginary line extending from the center of the Sun to the outer regions of the solar system the orbital paths of the planets cross that line. The exception is Pluto, which has an eccentric (unusual) orbit.

path Earth orbit is not exactly a perfect circle, but is slightly elliptical (oval). For example, the maximum distance from Earth is about 152 million km (About 95 million miles) from the Sun, Earth, minimum distance is about 147 million kilometers (about 91 million miles) from the sun. If Earth orbited the Sun in a perfect circle, it would always be the same distance from the sun.

The solar system, in turn, is part of the Milky Way, a collection of thousands of millions of stars held together by gravity. The Milky Way has armlike disks of stars spiral out from its center. The solar system is located in one of these spiral arms, known as the Orion Arm, which is about two thirds of the way from the center of the galaxy. In most of the northern hemisphere, this disc of stars is visible in one night summer as a dense band of light known as the Milky Way.

Our own Milky Way solar system exists within one of the spiral arms of the galaxy called disk-shaped Milky Way. This false-color image looks toward the center of the Milky Way, located 30,000 light years away. star clusters brightest are visible along the darkest areas of dust and gas.Photo researchers, Inc. / Morton-Milon / Science Source

The Earth is the fifth largest planet in the solar system. Its diameter, measured about Ecuador, is 12,756 km (7926 miles). The Earth is not a perfect sphere but is slightly flattened at the poles. Its polar diameter, measured from the North Pole to the South Pole is slightly smaller than the equatorial diameter, because of this flattening. Although Earth is the largest of the four planets-Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, which form the inner solar system (planets closest to the Sun) is small compared to the giant planets The outer solar system, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. For example, the largest planet, Jupiter, has a diameter in Ecuador than 143,000 km (89,000 miles), 11 times that of Earth. A famous feature of Jupiter's atmosphere, the Great Red Spot, is so large that three Earths could fit inside it.

The Earth has one natural satellite, the Moon. The moon revolves around Earth, completing a lap in an elliptical path in 27 days 7 hours 43 min 11.5 sec. The Moon orbits Earth due to gravity on Earth. However, the Moon also exerts a gravitational force on Earth. Evidence of gravitational influence of the Moon can be seen the tides of the ocean. One popular theory suggests that the Moon separated from Earth more than 4 million years ago when a large meteor or small planet hit the Earth.

As the Earth revolves around the sun, turn, turn, or in its axis, an imaginary line linking the North and South poles. The period a complete rotation is defined as a day and has 23 h 56 min 4.1 sec. The period of revolution around the Sun is defined as one year, or 365.2422 days solar or 365 days 5 hours 48 min 46 sec. Earth also moves along the Milky Way Galaxy and the tour moves through space. It takes more than 200 million years the stars in the Milky Way to complete one revolution around the center of the galaxy.

Earth's axis of rotation is inclined (tilted) 23.5 ° with respect to its plane of revolution around the sun. The axial tilt creates the seasons and makes the height of the sun in the sky at noon for increasing and decreasing as the seasons change. The northern hemisphere receives more energy from the Sun when it is tilted toward the sun. This approach corresponds to the northern hemisphere summer and winter in the southern hemisphere. The Southern Hemisphere receives maximum power is tilted towards the Sun, which corresponds to the southern hemisphere summer and winter in the north. Fall and spring are produced in the middle of this guidance.


The atmosphere is a layer of different gases extends from the surface of the Earth to the exosphere, the outer limit of the atmosphere, about 9,600 km (6,000 miles) above the surface. Near the surface of the Earth the atmosphere is composed almost entirely of nitrogen (78 percent) and oxygen (21 percent). The remaining 1 percent of the gases in the atmosphere consists of argon (0.9 percent), carbon dioxide (0.03 percent), variable amounts of water vapor and small amounts of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ozone, methane, carbon monoxide, helium, neon, krypton and xenon.

A Layers of the Atmosphere

Divisions of the atmosphere without our atmosphere there would be no life on Earth. A relatively thin envelope, the atmosphere consists of layers of gases that support life and provide protection against harmful radiation. © Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

The layers of the atmosphere are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, the thermosphere, and exosphere. The troposphere is the layer in which the time and extends from the surface to about 16 km (10 miles) above sea level in Ecuador. Above the troposphere is the stratosphere, which has an upper limit of about 50 km (30 miles) above sea level. The layer from 50 to 90 km (30-60 miles) is called the mesosphere. At an altitude of about 90 km, the temperatures begin to rise. The layer starts at this altitude is called the thermosphere due to the high temperatures that can reach in this layer (about 1200 ° C, or about 2200 ° F). The region beyond the thermosphere is called the exosphere. The thermosphere and exosphere overlap with another region of the atmosphere known as the ionosphere, a layer or layers of ionized air extends nearly 60 km (50 miles) above Earth's surface to altitudes of 1,000 km (600 miles) and more.

Earth's atmosphere and how it interacts with the oceans and solar radiation are responsible for global climate and weather. The environment plays a key role in life support. Almost all life on Earth uses atmospheric oxygen for energy in a process known as cellular respiration, which is essential for life. The environment also helps moderate Earth's climate by trapping the sun's radiation that is reflected by the Earth surface. Water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere act as "greenhouse gases." Like the glass in a greenhouse, trap infrared, or heat, radiation from the sun in the lower atmosphere and So to help warm Earth's surface. Without this greenhouse effect, heat radiation from escaping into space and Earth would be too cold for most support life forms.

Other gases in the atmosphere are also essential for life. The trace amount of ozone in the stratosphere blocks of the Earth from harmful ultraviolet sun. Without the ozone layer, life as we know it could not survive on earth. Earth's atmosphere is also an important part of a phenomenon known as the water cycle or hydrologic cycle. See also the atmosphere.

B The atmosphere and the water cycle

The water cycle, it simply means that the Earth's water is continually recycled between oceans, atmosphere, and land. All water on Earth today has been used and reused for billions of years. Very little water has been created or lost during this period of time. The water is in constant motion in the Earth's surface and changing back and forth between ice, liquid water and water vapor.

The water cycle begins when the sun heats the ocean water and makes it evaporate and enter the atmosphere as water vapor. Part of this water vapor falls as precipitation directly back to the ocean, completing a short cycle. Part of water vapor, however, comes to Earth, where it can fall as snow or rain. melting snow and rain enters rivers or lakes on earth. Due to gravity, water flows in rivers finally back in the oceans. melting snow and rain can enter the field. The Groundwater can be stored for hundreds or thousands of years, but eventually reaches the surface as springs or small pools known as leakage. Even the snow formed glacier or ice becomes part of the polar caps and stays out of the cycle for thousands of years finally melted or heated by the sun and turned into water vapor entering the atmosphere and fall again as precipitation. All water that falls on land eventually returns to the ocean, completing the water cycle.


Earth's surface is the outermost layer of the planet. It includes the hydrosphere, the crust and the biosphere.

A hydrosphere

The hydrosphere is composed of bodies of water that cover 71 percent of Earth's surface. The largest of these are the oceans, contain over 97 percent of all water on Earth. Glaciers and icecaps contain little more than 2 percent of Earth's water in the form of solid ice. Only about 0.6 percent is below the surface and groundwaters. However, groundwater is 36 times more abundant than water found in lakes, inland seas, rivers, and in the atmosphere as water vapor. Only 0.017 percent of all water on Earth is found in lakes and rivers. And a mere 0.001 percent in the atmosphere as water vapor. Most water in glaciers, lakes, inland seas, rivers and groundwater is fresh and can be used for drinking and agriculture. Dissolved salts make up about 3.5 percent of the water in the oceans, however, making it unfit for consumption or agriculture, unless treated to remove salts.

B Rind

The crust is composed of the continents, other areas of land and river, or plants, oceans. Dry land the surface of the Earth is called continental crust. Is 15 is about 75 km (9-47 miles) thick. The oceanic crust is thinner than continental crust. Its average thickness is 5 to 10 km (3 to 6 miles). The bark has a definite limit called Mohorovi

Oceanic crust and continental crust differ in the type of rock they contain. There are three main types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock, called magma, cools and solidifies. Rocks sediment are usually created by the decomposition of igneous rocks. They tend to form layers in the form of small particles of other rocks or mineralization dead animals and plants that have merged over time. The remains of dead animals and plants occasionally mineralized sedimentary rocks and are recognizable as fossils. Metamorphic rocks form when sedimentary or igneous rocks are altered by underground heat and deep pressure.

The oceanic crust is composed of dark rocks and dense igneous rocks, like basalt and gabbro. The continental crust consists of lighter colored, less dense igneous rocks such as granite and diorite. The continental crust also includes metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.

C Biosphere

The biosphere includes all areas capable of supporting life on Earth. The biosphere extends about 10 km (6 miles) in the atmosphere to the depths of the ocean floor. For a long time, scientists believed that all life depends on energy Sun and therefore can only exist where sunlight penetrates. In the 1970's, however, scientists discovered various forms of life around hydrothermal vents the Pacific Ocean floor, where sunlight does not penetrate. They learned that primitive bacteria formed the basis of this community of life and that the bacteria derived from its energy a process called chemosynthesis not dependent on sunlight. Some scientists believe that the biosphere may extend relatively deep in the crust. They have recovered what they believe are primitive bacteria of the holes drilled deep below the surface.

D Changes in the Earth's surface

Of Earth's surface has changed since the planet formed. Most of these changes have been gradual, taking place over millions of years. However, these changes have gradually led to radical changes, including formation, erosion and re-formation of mountain ranges, the movement of the continents, creating large supercontinent, and breaking into smaller continents supercontinents.

The weathering and erosion resulting from water cycle are among the main factors responsible for changes in the Earth's surface. Another major factor is the movement of the continents of the Earth and seabed and accumulation ranges mountain due to a phenomenon known as plate tectonics. Heat is the basis for these changes. The heat inside the Earth is believed to be responsible for continental drift, mountain building, and creating new seafloor in ocean basins. The sun's heat is responsible for the evaporation of water from the oceans and precipitation which is caused by weathering and erosion. Indeed, the heat inside the Earth helps raise the Earth's surface, while the sun's heat helps to erode the surface.

Aging D1

Weathering is the decomposition of rock in and near the Earth's surface. Most of the rocks were originally formed in a warm, high pressure below the surface had little contact with water. Once the rocks hit the Earth's surface, however, underwent to changes in temperature and exposed to water. When rocks are subjected to this type of surface conditions, bearing minerals tend to change. These changes are the process weathering. There are two types of erosion: physical and chemical.

Physical weathering involves a reduction in the size of material rocky. Freezing and thawing of water in the cavities of the rock, for example, broken rock into small pieces, because water expands when it freezes.

Chemical weathering involves a chemical change in the composition of the rock. For example, feldspar, a common mineral in granite and other rocks, react with water to form clay minerals, leading to a new substance with properties quite different from the parents of feldspar. Chemical weathering is important to human beings, and that creates clay minerals are important components of soil, the foundation of agriculture. Chemical weathering also causes the release of dissolved forms of sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium and other chemicals in surface water and groundwater. These elements are transported by surface water and groundwater in the sea and the sources of dissolved salts in the sea.

D2 erosion

Glacial erosion glaciers erode the surface of the earth through processes such as abrasion, crushing and fracture of the material in the path of the glacier. Glaciers move by the increase or decrease, depending on the weather. Moving glaciers erode and transport large quantities of rock, sand and other particles along its path. The ice road shown here is a moraine formed by a glacier in Switzerland.Photo researchers, Inc. / Paolo Koch

Erosion is the process that removes loose and weathered rock and brings it to a new site. Water, wind, ice and glaciers in combination with the force of gravity can cause erosion.

Erosion by running water is by far the more process joint erosion. It takes place over a period of time than other forms of erosion. When rainwater or snow melt moves downwards, can lead to rock or loose soil with it. Running water erosion gullies forms familiar V-shaped valleys that cut into most landscapes. The strength of the current Water removes loose particles formed by erosion. In the process, ravines and valleys are elongated, widened and deepened. Often, the water overflows the edges of gullies or watercourses, causing flooding. Each new flood is far more material to increase the size of the valley. Meanwhile, the material weather loosens increasingly so the process continues.

Erosion by glacial ice is less common, but may cause greater changes in landscape the shortest possible time. glacial ice forms in a region where snow does not melt in the spring and summer and instead accumulates in the form of ice. For major glaciers to form, this lack of snowmelt has to happen for a number of years in areas with high rainfall. As ice accumulates and thickens, it flows like a solid mass. As it flows, has an enormous capacity to erode the soil and solids, including rock. Ice is an important factor in shaping landscapes, especially in mountain regions. Glacial ice provides much of the spectacular scenery of these regions. Features such as horns (acute mountain peaks), ar

The wind is a major cause of erosion in arid areas only (dry) regions. The wind carries sand and dust, which can even look into solid rock.

There are many factors that determine the type and the type of erosion that occurs in a given area. The climate of an area determines the distribution, quantity and type of precipitation receiving area and therefore the type and rate of erosion. An area with an arid climate than eroding an area with a humid climate. The elevation of an area also plays a role in determining the potential energy of water. The higher the elevation of the water with more energy will flow due to gravity. The type of rock in an area (sandstone, granite or slate) can determine the shapes of the valleys and slopes, and depth of streams.

A geological landscape age, ie how long the current weather conditions and erosion have affected the defined area general appearance. relatively young landscapes tend to be more resistant and angular in appearance. Landscapes tend to have more rounded slopes and hills. The most ancient landscapes tend to be low with wide valleys, open river and low, rounded hills. The overall effect of the wear of a surface is the ground level, the trend is toward reduction of all areas of land to sea level.

D3 plate tectonics

Opposing this trend is leveling force responsible for raising mountains and plateaus and for creating new landmasses. These changes in the Earth's surface occur in the outer portion of the solid Earth, known as the lithosphere. The lithosphere cortex consists of two regions known as the upper mantle and is approximately 65 to 100 km (40 to 60 miles) thick. Compared with the interior of the Earth however, this region is relatively thin. The lithosphere is thinner in proportion to the whole Earth that the skin of an apple is a whole apple.

Scientists believe that the lithosphere is divided into a series of plates, or segments. According to the theory of plate tectonics, these plates move around the earth's surface for long periods of time. Tectonics comes from the Greek word, Tektonik, which means "builder."

According to theory, the lithosphere is divided into small and large plates. The largest plates include the Pacific plate, the North American plate, Eurasian plate, the plate of Antarctica India and Australia plate and the African plate. Smaller plates include the Cocos Plate, Nazca Plate, Philippine Plate and the Caribbean plate. Plate sizes vary much. The Cocos plate is 2,000 km (1,000 miles) across, while the Pacific plate is nearly 14,000 km (nearly 9,000 miles) wide.

These plates move in three different ways in relation to others. Pull apart or away from each other, collide or move against each other, or slide over one another as they move toward sides. The movement of these plates helps explain many geological phenomena such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and mountain building and the formation of oceans and continents.

? I? discontinuity, or simply the Moho. The border between the cortex of the underlying mantle, which is much thicker and interior.êtes part of the Earth (sharp edges), the lakes formed by glaciers and U-shaped valleys are the result of glacial erosion. About the Author

My name is MIAN AFAQ TARIQ. I am student of 2nd year in MTB Higher Secondry School. I am living in Sadiqabad(PAKISTAN). My contect numbers are 03342527785 and 03023357300.

Jupiter Orion Water Ionizer

Technos Water Ionizer

Power and Propulsion beams Micronautics Introduction

Micronautics? Maybe you've heard that word before, but as I wrote in my processor spell check text highlighted immediately. So it's not in the dictionary yet. It will be there one day. When will this happen? I guess depends on our technological progress, but I'm sure: we need it.

Micronautics was a subject of science fiction for a long time. In a story that I vaguely remember from my childhood, a man has made friends with a microscopic robot that lived inside his body. The robot cleans veins and entertaining conversations with him some beating, until one day host nearly choked to death on a clam. The robot was saved by pressing the clam out of its throat, but unfortunately lost on a spit.

One has to be small enough to be "lost in a" Spitting. In fact, compared with a real vehicle, for example, eighteen-wheeler, measured in meters, nano-vehicle will have the same dimensions are measured in microns, ie it is a million times smaller in linear scale. When machine building, such will be extremely small, the best area of application is in fact the micro-space inside a human body. As So when micronautics, ie, an ability to navigate the micro will become a reality, mankind will get huge benefits. First, micronautics bring revolutionary changes in medicine. Our bodies can literally be cleaned and repaired from the inside. Hundreds of deaths from infectious diseases to atherosclerosis erased or reduced to the subject of regular cleaning, such as professional dental cleaning today.

Only "swallow your doctor", because once Richard Feynman, the great physicist, formulated the plot. Feynman was actually quoting his graduate student, Al Hibbs, who came up with this idea (R. Feynman, there is plenty of room at the bottom, 1959). Of course, there is much more than they can play in this brief note. A day like micro-robots connect to the brain, and swallow your doctor tax advisor, professor of Spanish or probation officer will become a common practice. Perhaps, our inner freedom of the will is needed constitutional protection of a day. However, before we go into the need for a new amendment, a lot of technical problems must be resolved.

It took a century to develop such sophisticated aircraft, such as we have today. How long we have before micronautics border can be assumed, and airspace? Perhaps, given the acceleration of technological progress, which reach that point within a shorter period of time. One of the "simple" tasks will be to design a nano-engine robots. The problem is that one can not simply download any existing motor mechanics, as compared to our macroscopic world, the material properties and physical processes dominate the micron scale will be different. A nano-motor vehicle should have very few moving parts, compared to our cars. How can you do that?

Beams of energy propulsion (BEP) is a right way to advance nano-vehicles. The majority of MPA applications are designed for space, the beginning of the process is relatively simple. Energy is transmitted to the spacecraft from an independent source and often remote. In real life this will probably be a high-power laser in space gave birth. In order to obtain "Beams", the spacecraft collects and focuses the laser beam incident on some solid propellant. With a focus on high energy propellant vaporizes instantly, often ionized exhaust that propels the vehicle by the principle of rockets. This is one of the possible scenarios of BEP, called ablative laser propulsion Other schemes, but when it changes from "space" to the micro-space, is the main question:. who voluntarily agree to the rocket inside the (her) veins and arteries?

The good news is that nano-scale that not even need to use destructive techniques propulsion. The medium is primarily micronautics water, which composes 90% of blood plasma. To advance in a liquid, the bacteria are using scourge called, a line of a helical shape, which basically works like. A propeller similar idea can be used in nano-engine power can be supplied by the electromagnetic field. Our bodies are almost transparent to magnetic fields and for certain frequency ranges of the electric field. Therefore, a nano-circuit in the form of a loop or a solenoid, which can rotate or move in the field external electromagnetic can do the job. Flagellum is attached to a circuit, or may simply be a natural continuation of it. The orientation of a field is set a direction of movement.

It should be noted that 50 years ago, Richard Feynman predicted that nano-doctors will be driven by electric motors powered with an external electromagnetic field. There are other possibilities, though, as X-ray beams, proposed by the professors of the Tokyo University of Technology, Shiho and Yabe. Micronautics can still sound like science fiction, but is now a matter of physics and engineering. Among the scientific meetings, where discussion is micronautics International Symposium on propulsion energy beams (ISBEP). ISBEP The sixth will be held in Scottsdale, Arizona in November 2009. Although the main objective of the conference will implementing best environmental practices for space propulsion, some works of micro-space movement is expected and will be very welcome.

About the Author

Andrew Pakhomov is founder and president of American Institute of Beamed Energy Propulsion, a nonprofit scientific organization serving to development and popularization of this space technology of the future AIBEP He is also associate professor of physics at University of Alabama in Huntsville. You can read more about fascinating field of beamed-energy propulsion, please visit official site of AIBEP.

Jupiter Science Melody Water Ionizer (Part 2 of 4)

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